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Leaflet, "Wanted: Picketers"

Leaflet, "Wanted Picketers," March 1960.

March 1960: Leaflet, "Wanted: Picketers"

Shortly after the first sit-ins began in Chapel Hill, this leaflet was used to recruit new members to the cause, as well as to outline the motivations behind their actions. The leaflet highlights a strict adherence to the tenets of nonviolent protest: "We welcome picketers of any race, high school age and beyond, ONLY if they agree THAT UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES will they resort to violence." The front of the leaflet invites volunteers to "see or call David B. Dansby or Richard Strowd." In 1961, Dansby earned the distinction of becoming the first black undergraduate to earn a degree from Carolina.

- From the Records of the Office of Chancellor - William B. Aycock Series (#40020)

Photograph, Harold Foster

4 July 1963: Photograph, Harold Foster

In the days following the first sit-in in Chapel Hill on 28 February 1960, local African American youths formed the Chapel Hill Council on Racial Equality, with an executive committee and three sub-committees to direct the near-daily protest activities. The goal of these sub-committees was to picket, negotiate, inform, and gain support in the community. Chapel Hillian Harold Foster was selected to be the chair of the executive committee. In his book The Free Men, John Ehle wrote, "Harold had been born and reared in Chapel Hill, and although he now attended North Carolina College, a state Negro college in Durham, he continued to live at home. He was a bright, nineteen-year-old, good-looking fellow who wore sports clothes well and spoke in a soft, in fact a mellow yet clipped speech, with a Beat tinge to his choice of words." Harold Foster (center) is shown here pointing out the segregated Colonial Drug Co.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Advertisement for the Colonial Drug Company. Copyright Chapel Hill News.

12 June 1963: Advertisement for the Colonial Drug Co.

John Carswell '43 was the owner of Colonial Drug, which stood at 450 West Franklin Street at the unofficial border between the white and black communities of Chapel Hill. This full-page advertisement, which ran in the Chapel Hill Weekly, was his declaration: "We will not be Intimidated or Coerced by Certain Alphabetical Organizations or Committees under the Disguise of 'Betterment of Certain Groups or Races'." A copy of the advertisement hung in the front window of the store.

- Copyright Chapel Hill News, reproduction on loan from the Chapel Hill Museum

A Report to the Citizens of Chapel Hill. Copyright Chapel Hill News.

May 1960: A Report to the Citizens of Chapel Hill

The Council of Racial Equality took out a full-page ad in the Weekly to give an update on the ten weeks of activities that followed the first sit-in in Chapel Hill on 28 February 1960. This report illustrates how the movement slowly began to enlist other groups from the community, including a small, unidentified group of UNC students. "We are grateful that this is a community where we do not stand alone."

- Copyright Chapel Hill News, reproduction on loan from the Chapel Hill Museum

Pamphlet, Congress of Racial Equality

Undated: Pamphlet, Congress of Racial Equality

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 in Chicago by James L. Farmer Jr., George Houser, and Bernice Fisher. From the beginning, CORE used nonviolence as a tactic against segregation. In spring 1947, CORE sent members on a two-week "Journey of Reconciliation" through the South in an effort to end segregation in interstate travel. In 1961, this journey was retraced by "the Freedom Ride," that met with severe violence and sparked similar rides across the South. In the mid-1960s, CORE encouraged indigenous action—a tactic of struggle which gave the movement multiple fronts across the nation. Chapters of CORE were soon chartered in Durham and later in Chapel Hill.

- From David Schenck Papers (#5288)

Photograph, CORE organizer Quinton Baker leads a practice march

CORE organizer Quinton Baker leads a practice march, Summer 1963.

Summer 1963: Photograph, CORE organizer Quinton Baker leads a practice march

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was a vital element in the Chapel Hill desegregation movement, injecting it with much-needed guidance from its experienced leaders. In the early 1960s, the Durham office of CORE was headed by Floyd McKissick, who had been among the first African American students to attend the Law School at UNC. McKissick acted as the attorney for many demonstrators arrested in Chapel Hill. In 1963, McKissick asked Quinton Baker, one of his most seasoned and trusted organizers, to go to Chapel Hill to give seminars on the philosophy of nonviolence and to teach effective demonstration tactics to local activists. Here Baker is shown leading a practice protest march, followed by local leader Harold Foster.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Copy of The Free Men by John Ehle

1965: Copy of The Free Men by John Ehle

The Chapel Hill civil rights movement began to pick up momentum by summer 1963, reaching its zenith in winter 1963/1964, and continuing some activity until the passage of the Civil Rights Act in summer 1964. This year-long period was chronicled in The Free Men by North Carolina author John Ehle. Published by Harper & Row in 1965, The Free Men reported on the events of the movement through the story of three of its main leaders: UNC student leaders John Dunne and Patrick Cusick and CORE organizer Quinton Baker.

- From the North Carolina Collection (Call Number - C326 E33f )

Photograph of John Dunne, Unattributed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

Circa 1964: Photograph of John Dunne

- Photograph unattributed, from John Ehle Papers (#4555)

Letter from John Winslow[?] to President William Friday

22 May 1963: Letter from John Winslow[?] to President William Friday

"I wonder how this young man has the time to travel the country over officiously intermeddling, giving out 'interviews' like this and keeping up with his Morhead [sic] Foundation studies?"

- From the Records of the Office of President - William C. Friday Files (#40009)

"A Resolution of the UNC Chapter of the Student Peace Union".

17 March 1963: "A Resolution of the UNC Chapter of the Student Peace Union"

The resolution laid out the purpose of the Student Peace Union (SPU), lists businesses where discriminatory practices were maintained, and reached out to all Carolina students: "We feel that all students have a moral and intellectual obligation to join their ranks."

- From the Records of the Office of President - William C. Friday Files (#40009)

Letter from eight professors from the UNC School of Law to President William Friday.

6 June 1963: Letter from eight professors from the UNC School of Law to President William Friday

In spring 1963, the student chapter of the NAACP petitioned the UNC Administration to eliminate segregation in ward assignments at the North Carolina Memorial Hospital. The petition was referred to a committee of the Board of Trustees. During the deliberations, several law professors penned this letter to remind President Friday of the historical role of the University as a leader in human relations and suggested that "the University adopt a policy of utilizing off-campus facilities in connection with University sponsored functions where no alumni, students, or other interested and legitimate participants would be denied access on the basis of race." The letter went on to urge that no other University services be offered to those who discriminate on the basis of race and that the athletic programs be fully integrated.

- From the Records of the Office of President - William C. Friday Files (#40009)

Letter from Patrick Cusick to Floyd McKissick.

6 August 1963: Letter from Patrick Cusick to Floyd McKissick

The letter indicates that the SPU planned to attend the March on Washington, at which Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Photograph, Rally at St. Joseph A.M.E. Church

Fall 1963: Photograph, Rally at St. Joseph A.M.E. Church

National attention from the March on Washington reinvigorated activists across the country. In Chapel Hill, participation in rallies and marches during this period often numbered in the hundreds, as can be seen in this photograph. Student leader John Dunne is seen in the foreground, middle-right. Also shown here is Bob Brown (foreground, at right), a community activist and later the publisher of the independent newsweekly the North Carolina Anvil.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Photograph, Pat Cusick being loaded into a police squad car

29 July 1963: Photograph, Patrick Cusick being loaded into a police squad car

Patrick Cusick once said in an interview that Police Chief William Blake was a formidable adversary to desegregation demonstrators. It was not because of any violent tactic he employed, but rather because he was well versed in the philosophy of civil disobedience. According to Cusick, Chief Blake had been reading works by Mahatma Gandhi since the 1940s. Blake also recognized the effect that photographic documentation could have on the minds of the general public. After a photograph was published in the Chapel Hill Weekly showing a young female demonstrator being dragged by an arresting Chapel Hill police officer, Chief Blake instructed his men henceforth to carry those being arrested.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Letter from Joe Straley to Police Chief William Blake.

18 May 1964: Letter from Joe Straley to Police Chief William Blake

In this letter, Straley, writing on behalf of the Committee of Concerned Citizens, gives the Chapel Hill Police Department advance warning of their picketing schedule: "We appreciate the care which has been given to keep the picketing as peaceful as it has mostly been."

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

Photograph of Karen Parker

1965: Photograph of Karen Parker

- From 1965 Yackety Yack

 

 

Entry from the diary of Karen Parker

18 December 1963: Entry from the diary of Karen Parker

Karen Parker was encouraged by her friend Roy Thompson to maintain a journal during her time as a student at Carolina. Entries range from November 1963 through August 1964, and document the often lonesome feeling of being a black student on a white campus, as well as some of the more normal preoccupations of student life, such as attending parties and forming friendships. In this entry, Parker described how her participation in a demonstration resulted in her arrest. She wrote, "On Saturday, the 14th, I decided to go to jail. It was no fun at all."

- From the Karen L. Parker Diary (#5275-z)

Judgment of the Superior Court of Orange County.

12 December 1963: Judgment of the Superior Court of Orange County

Christine Glover, Hope Van Riper, Charliese Cotton, and Patrick Cusick were all sentenced to 30 days in jail or payment of a $50 fine. They chose to serve their sentence rather than to pay the fine.

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Leaflet, 'Why Four People Chose Jail'.

December 1963: Leaflet, "Why Four People Chose Jail"

Calling on the town's spirit of the Christmas season, the statement declared, "[M]any have offered far greater sacrifices than we can to atone for the sins of others. Christmas celebrates the birth of One destined to the greatest sacrifice of all."

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Photograph, Marchers gather in front of the Franklin Street post office

December 1963: Photograph, Marchers gather in front of the Franklin Street post office

Members of several civil rights organizations staged this holiday march, carrying letters addressed to political leaders to urge anti-discrimination legislation. They requested that fellow Chapel Hill citizens follow suit to "Send Freedom Letters for Christmas."

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Letter from Chancellor William B. Aycock to President William Friday.

Letter from Chancellor William B. Aycock to President William Friday.

19 December 1963: Letter from Chancellor William B. Aycock to President William Friday

December 1963 brought three weeks of intense, almost nightly demonstrations in Chapel Hill. Within this period, the officers of the Chapel Hill Police Department logged more than 400 hours of overtime and arrested 75 demonstrators. Among those arrested were students and members of the faculty of the University. Friday and Aycock began to receive letters from alumni urging them to take a stance on disciplining these students and faculty for their participation in off-campus activities. The UNC administration was not the only organization seeking to define its role in doling out consequences. Student Government began debating whether or not civil disobedience was a violation of the Campus Code. Aycock wrote, "I am confident that both you and I and perhaps the other chancellors will be called upon to explain why we have not dealt with the situation but, as you readily understand, we are in a dilemma."

- From the Records of the Office of Chancellor - William B. Aycock Series (#40020)

 Statement, Office of the Student Attorney General.

20 December 1963: Statement, Office of the Student Attorney General

Chancellor Aycock followed up on his previous letter regarding Student Government and its debate about civil disobedience and the Campus Code by forwarding to President Friday this statement issued by the Office of the Student Attorney General. The statement declared that the Student Attorney General will, "upon the final disposition of each case by the North Carolina Courts, forward said case to the appropriate Student Judicial Council for action."

- From the Records of the Office of President - William C. Friday Files (#40009)

 Statement of Michael H. Lawler, President of the Student Body.

7 February 1964: Statement of Michael H. Lawler, President of the Student Body

As arrests of student protesters increased, a decision had to be made as to whether or not students would be disciplined by the University, and, if so, how this would be carried out and by whom. Punishment of violations of the Campus Code had historically fallen under the purview of Student Government. Addressing the role of Student Government, Lawler urged, "There is a definite need to fashion a new civic drama in Chapel Hill. … It is time that the students of this University assert their citizenship in new and meaningful directions."

- From the Records of the Office of Chancellor - William B. Aycock Series (#40020)

Photograph, Durham to Chapel Hill "Walk for Freedom"

12 January 1964: Photograph, Durham to Chapel Hill "Walk for Freedom"

On Monday, 13 January 1964, after months of negotiation, a public accommodations ordinance was to come before the Chapel Hill Board of Aldermen for a vote. Groups on both sides of the issue prepared for the meeting. On Sunday the twelfth, a group of 170 met in Durham, heard speeches from CORE's national director James Farmer, author John Knowles, and others, then marched three hours in the freezing rain from Durham to Chapel Hill.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Paid advertisement of the Chapel Hill Ministerial Association.

12 January 1964: Paid advertisement of the Chapel Hill Ministerial Association

This petition was signed by hundreds of citizens of Chapel Hill and published the day before the Board of Aldermen's meeting to decide the fate of the proposed law. "We, the persons whose names appear below, urge the passage of a public accommodations ordinance in Chapel Hill that will forbid discrimination because of race."

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

Photograph of the Board of Aldermen's public meeting

13 January 1964: Photograph of the Board of Aldermen's public meeting

Preparing for Monday night's meeting, Mayor Sandy McClamroch and members of the Board of Aldermen met with business owners and community leaders to try to work out a compromise. In front of an overflow audience at Town Hall, the Board voted down the bill 4-2. Instead, the Board suggested that a mediation board be set up to hear individual disputes regarding segregated establishments.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, from John Ehle Papers (#4555)

'Pressure: How Should We Respond?'.

19 January 1964: "Pressure: How Should We Respond?"

This pamphlet, based on a sermon given by the Reverend Charles M. Jones at the Community Church of Chapel Hill on Sunday, 19 January 1964, discussed the reactions throughout Chapel Hill after the 13 January 1964 decision of the Board of Aldermen not to pass an accommodations ordinance. "No one likes to be forced even to do that which is right," it stated.

- From Allard K. Lowenstein Papers (#4340)

Photograph, Protesters block Franklin Street

Protesters block Franklin Street.

8 February 1964: Photograph, Protesters block Franklin Street

Following the Board of Aldermen's failure to pass a public accommodations ordinance, CORE national director James Farmer issued an ultimatum that Chapel Hill be fully integrated by 1 February or be prepared to face the consequences. Demonstrations intensified and the deadline passed without serious incident. Then, on 8 February, demonstrators staged a massive protest following the UNC-Wake Forest basketball game in an attempt to draw national attention to the civil rights struggle in Chapel Hill. They blocked the exits to the Woollen Gymnasium parking lots and street intersections, and attempted to throw themselves in front of advancing cars.
- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Letter from (Sender Unknown) to President William Friday.

6 January 1964: Letter from (sender unknown) to President William Friday

Calling attention to the case of Rosemary Ezra (mistakenly referred to as "Rosemary Eliza"), the letter writer complained to President Friday that "[s]uch students reflect credit on what they may have learned from a given institution."

- From the Records of the Office of President - William C. Friday Files (#40009)

Letter from Rosemary Ezra to Floyd McKissick.

14 May 1964: Letter from Rosemary Ezra to Floyd McKissick

In this letter, civil rights leader Rosemary Ezra asked McKissick to turn over her house deed to be used for bail. Ezra used her house as bail for herself and for other protesters. She was one of the few homeowners among the demonstrators.

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Photograph of Holy Week fasters. Photograph Copyright Al Amon

March 1964: Photograph of Holy Week fasters

In March, four members of the Freedom Movement staged a fast on the lawn of the Franklin Street post office to try to force local officials to reconsider the decision against the accommodations ordinance. Participants "only drank water and smoked cigarettes" (Ehle) for eight days.

- Photograph Copyright Al Amon, from John Ehle Papers (#4555)

Leaflet written by the participants of the Holy Week fast.

19 March 1964: Leaflet written by the participants of the Holy Week fast

These leaflets were distributed to passersby during the Holy Week fast held in front of the Franklin Street post office. This statement written by John Dunne, Patrick Cusick, LaVert Taylor, James Foushee, and others detailed the motivations behind their protest. On the reverse side is a list of all the known segregated businesses remaining in town at the time (29 in all).

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

Letter from John B. Dunne, Sr. to Floyd McKissick.

25 April 1964: John B. Dunne Sr. to Floyd McKissick

Dunne asked several questions about the case against his son, student protest leader John Dunne, including, "What is the minimum number of months they will have to serve with good behavior before they will be eligible for parole and would their continued activity in the Freedom Movement make them subject to reincarceration under the judge's peculiar sentence?"

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Letter from John Dunne to His Parents, Emmaline and John Dunne, Sr.

25 April 1964: Letter from John Dunne to his parents, Emmaline and John Dunne Sr.

"Well here we are!" reported John Dunne. Writing to his parents from the jail in Hillsborough, John Dunne described the outcome of his trial held before Judge Raymond Mallard in Orange County District Court. Also included in the letter are descriptions of the sentences imposed on fellow demonstrators and details about the conditions in the jail.

- From John B. Dunne Papers (#4391)

Letter from Lou Calhoun to Floyd McKissick

26 July 1964: Letter from Lou Calhoun to Floyd McKissick

Writing to McKissick from the Orange County jail in Hillsborough, Calhoun discussed the prospects of life after parole. Calhoun was a senior at Carolina when he was sentenced to six months for his role in the demonstrations.

- From Floyd McKissick Papers (#4930)

Letter from Joe Straley to Paul Newman

28 April 1964: Letter from Joe Straley to Paul Newman

In spring 1964, the cases of many activists reached the Orange County courtroom of Judge Raymond Mallard. Seeing the protesters' actions as elements of a northern plot to radicalize the state, Mallard decided to strike a heavy blow against the Chapel Hill movement in order to separate the student leadership from the rest of the local movement. Feeling the effects of this drain of young leaders from the movement, Joe Straley wrote to actor Paul Newman, asking him to appear as a special guest at a rally of the Committee of Concerned Citizens in order to attract new members, especially students, to the cause. "Students for the most part have been apathetic; the few who have been active on behalf of civil rights have gone all out," Straley wrote.

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

Response to Joe Straley from Paul Newman

5 May 1964: Response to Joe Straley from Paul Newman

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

 

 

Copy of H.R. 7152 (Civil Rights Act)

Copy of Civil Rights Act.

26 February 1964: Copy of H.R. 7152 (Civil Rights Act)

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 as it stood before being passed by the Senate in summer 1964.

- From Joseph W. Straley Papers (#5252)

Photograph, Ku Klux Klan Rally, Hillsborough, N.C.

July 1964: Photograph, Ku Klux Klan Rally, Hillsborough, N.C.

In summer 1964, around the time of the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the Ku Klux Klan staged a rally near Hillsborough.

- Photograph Copyright Jim Wallace, on loan from the photographer

Postcard to James Farmer, National Director of CORE

29 August 1964: Postcard to James Farmer, national director of CORE

Just days after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a segregationist wrote this derisive postcard to Farmer: "Dear Sir - Now that you have a world wide platform, tell the whites what we really want, the freedom to murder rape knife and pillage. Love, I. M. Black" This harsh sentiment reflects segregationists' attempts to maintain the status quo in the face of substantive changes brought about by legislation.

- From Allard K. Lowenstein Papers (#4340)